Aedes mosquitoes are highly invasive and adaptive and can be recognised by the white stripes on their body and legs. Aedes mosquitoes can transmit several diseases such as Dengue, yellow fever and Chikungunya. Dengue is a virus that causes high fevers, joint pains, and in some cases internal bleeding which can be fatal. Dengue is endemic in more than 120 countries worldwide, mostly in Central and South America and Asia. Approximately 100 million people get infected on a yearly basis, of which an estimated 25.000 people die.


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Culex  mosquitoes are often present in high numbers, are, found all over the globe, and are considered the main nuisance mosquito species. Culex mosquitoes can also transmit diseases such as West-Nile virus, filariasis and avian malaria. West-Nile virus, for instance, can cause fever and in severe cases meningitis or encephalitis in humans. Recent outbreaks of West Nile virus encephalitis in humans have occurred in several developed countries, including the United States and southern Europe. Culex mosquito control is largely based on area-wide larviciding (mostly with chemical insecticides), which is threatened by increasing insecticide resistance and environmental concerns of the public.


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Anopheles
mosquitoes are found worldwide, mostly in (sub)tropical regions, and comprise many different subspecies, each with different habitats and behaviours. Anopheles mosquitoes can transmit malaria, a disease caused by the parasite Plasmodium. Malaria causes fevers, anaemia and in severe cases (mostly in children <5 years of age) cerebral trauma and death. Malaria occurs mostly in (sub)tropical regions and causes an estimated 300 million infections and 0.7-1.2 million deaths each year. There is still no commercial malaria vaccine available and the few anti-malarial drugs are losing their efficacy due to drug-resistance.


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